Unit Industry Sector
Health Science and Medical Technology

## Mathematical and Scientific Concepts

### Unit Overview / Details

In this unit, students will review and expand on the fundamentals of mathematical and scientific concepts related to biotechnology. Lessons address such topics as the structure and function of DNA and chromosomes, the central dogma of molecular biology, using cultures, and the basics of lab work.

Classroom/Lab
6 Weeks

### Content / Concepts

• basic mathematical concepts: calculation of percentages and ratios, standard deviation and measures of central tendency
• basic structure of a chromosome and difference between a dominant homozygous trait and a heterozygous trait
• basic structures and functions of cells and their application in biotechnology
• central theory of molecular biology
• California Career and Technical Education Standards: 16
• California Academic Content Standards: Reinforced: 30
• Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS): 2
• Common Core Standards: Reinforced: 1
• All Standards
• Full Details

### Lessons in this Unit

• This is a great activity for the beginning of the year. It serves as both an ice breaker and an review of Molecular Genetics. Students will discuss differences and similarities between themselves and their partner and connect these differences to their DNA.  Then they will analyze their genetic traits and make "babies" with another student (on paper).

Label
1 Class Period
• Many students in my biotechnology course have never used or have forgotten about the metric system. We are constantly using metrics in the class so this lesson is taught at the beginning of the year, so students become comfortable using the system and making conversions.

1 period
55 Minutes
• Students will become familiar with the formula, how to use it, and practice making calculations.

1 day
55 Minutes
• In this simple activity students will figure out their "DNA" name, and then make a DNA model of their name. It can be used as either a basic activity on structure and base pairing or can be used for review. I typically do this activity around winter break so we make the models into ornaments by adding a hook and placing them on a tree in the classroom,

2 days
55 Minutes
• This activity works well in the first part of the year to help re-acquaint students with volumetric measurements, making solutions and data analysis. You will need the following materials for the lab; large volumetric flasks, 100 ml or 250 ml beakers, metric ruler, molasses, new/fresh yeast, lots of large test tubes and smaller test tubes that will be inverted and placed into the larger test tubes to collect CO2

This lab can be used in a variety of units: cellular respiration & fermentation, microorganisms, carbohydrate metabolism, scientific method and measurement.

2 classes
55 Minutes
• 60 years ago the structure of dna was identified.  10 years ago scientist mapped the human genome.  Every generation from this point forward will have access to their own genetic code.  This is a surreal idea for most high school students.

This lesson will introduce them to what we currently know about their dna and how much more we must understand if we are to use gene therapy in the future as a reliable form of medicine.

This lesson works best after the students have had some instruction in dna, protein synthesis and genetics.

Note -  The school I teach at integrates English into most of our lessons.  We use a book titled, G enome, by Matt Ridley.  The book was written in 2000 on the verge of the Human genome discovery.  The author has assigned an attribute/theme to each chromosome such as: history, disease, or instinct.  I assign a chapter/chromosome to each group of students to read and later incorporate that information into their chromosome project.  Not every school or class may be able to do this.  However, I strongly suggest you give the groups something other than the Internet to gather information from.

3 classess
55 Minutes
• Students will research the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology and develop an innovative and accurate genetic code map.  Besides being a translater for mRNA to protein, this map can also include amino acid side chain structure or identify amino acids by their chemical properties (e.g. polar and nonpolar).  It is also possible to show additional information such as third nucleotide flexibility in each codon.

Introduction to genetic code map
20 Minutes
Design process for developing a new map
30 Minutes
Composition of final code map
50 Minutes
• Students will identify the structure and function of antibodies. Students will also use the "storyboard" technique to detail how antibodies work in the human body. As an additional extension activity, students can create a children's book or short movie on how antibodies work and why they are important.

2 class periods of
60 Minutes
• Students will perform an Ouchterlony test with an antibody simulation.  The simulation is meant to test for possible antigens that a patient may be allergic to.

Two Class Periods
50 Minutes
• One of the main challenges in biotech is that we are often working with things that are too small for our eyes to see. This activity will help students put into perspective the relative sizes between all the major microscopic structures inherent in biotechnology.

For example, we can easily understand the difference in height between a 25-story building and an 11-inch piece of paper, but did you know this is the same relative size difference between a skin cell and an influenza virus? Your student's probably don't!

Classroom/Lab
90 Minutes
• Fossil fuels are currently the dominant source of energy. America needs to find alternative forms of energy production. Cellulose, found in plant matter can be converted to cellulosic ethanol using a series of different enzymes. Students will test the enzyme cellobiase to break down a sugar substrate. This is one step in the larger process of ethanol production. Students will determine the reaction rate of the enzyme. Students can also see the effect that temperature and pH have on enzymes. This is based off Biorad's Biofuel Enzyme Kit.

Days One and Two: Enzyme Labs 1 & 2
60 Minutes
Day Three: Analysis
60 Minutes
Day Four (Optional): Informal Debate
60 Minutes
• Students will make and sterilize a grow hormone mixture. They will then place a fuchsia tissue into culture tubes. Students will then record qualitative and quantitative data once a week and graph and analyze. Students with successful root growth will then move fuchsia to multiplication media to stimulate root growth. This is an excellent lesson in learning how to have proper sterile technique.

Day One: Preparation
60 Minutes
Days Two and Three: Explants
60 Minutes
Day Four: Maintenance of Clones
60 Minutes