Lesson Plan Industry Sector
Agriculture & Natural Resources

Lesson Plan Originally Created By: Shay Williams-Hopper

Bone Structure

Part of Unit: Animal Physiology

Lesson Plan Overview / Details

In this lesson, students will learn about the structure of bones. They will be able to detail the parts of a long bone, as well and the function of bones.

Lesson Time

Instructional Time
2 Hours
Lab Time
5 Days

Objectives and Goals

  • Describe the functions of the musculoskeletal system
  • Detail the structure of a bone

Activities in this Lesson

  • Anticipatory Set Hooks / Set

    Which shape is stronger, a cylinder or rectangular prism? This activity shows that bone which have a cylinder shape are going to be stronger and able to hold more stress then a bone that is rectangular. Some teacher preparation is needed to set up anticipatory set. I have attached a copy of how to complete the anticipatory set.

    Resources and Materials

    • Bone Shape Anticipatory Set Directions [ Download ]
  • Lecture Lecture

    Typically I would then move into a lecture to explain the structure of the bone and functions of the skeletal system. I have attached the PowerPoint I use when teaching this lesson. Students are required to record notes from the PowerPoint into the Animal Science Notebooks. These notes will serve as the site from which I will pull quiz questions at the end of the unit. Throughout the lesson, I formulate questions to check for understanding and as a review for up coming material.

    Resources and Materials

  • Anatomy of a Bone Demo / Modeling

    After lecturing, I make sure that my students have a picture of a long bone with all of the anatomical parts unlabeled. I usually place a transparency on the board and review with them the parts and functions of a long bone. Students record the parts on their worksheet. I have included a picture of the bone I use with a key for you to print off and use. You could use an LCD projector if you wanted instead of a transparency machine. After reviewing each of the parts I bring out a long bone which I purchase from the local butcher shop. I have my butcher cut the bone lengthwise to expose the internal detail of the bone. I have the class gather around the table and we review each if the parts of the bone as a class, so they can see each of the anatomical structures. Students are given a second sheet in which they can record observations about the bone that they see "live." Please see attached worksheet. I randomly call on students to identify the anatomical parts and explain their function. This too serves as a review.

    Resources and Materials

    • Anatomy of a Bone Worksheet [ Download ] Use this worksheet to review with student what each part of the bone is, and what it's function is.
    • Examining the Anatomy of a Long Bone [ Download ] Step by step instructions of how to Examine a Long Bone with your class. Also includes an observation sheet for your students to complete during the activity.
  • This lab allows students to investigate the materials that bones are made of. It uses everyday household materials such as bleach and vinegar to deplete the minerals of the bone. It will take 5 days to complete the lab. This can be formatted for block schedules if needed. After completing the lecture, and anatomy of a bone activity, I move into this lab. Students need to be given about 5 minutes each day to gather data and record their information.

    Note-  For this lab I purchase chicken drumsticks at the local grocery store, I then have each student carefully clean the meat, tendons, and gristle off of the bones using a scalpel blade.  I have them throw all of the meat product away.  I check the bones for cleanliness to make sure that they have removed all of the flesh! 

    Resources and Materials

    • Rubber Band Bone Lab [ Download ] Students can investigate the materials which make up bones. It is exciting for the students to see rubbery bones and shattering bones at the conclusion of this lab.
  • To close, I have students pair up with their neighbor and do two minute interviews to review the material covered.  To set this activiy up, ask the students to stand, find a partner, and move to a location within the classroom.  With them they need to bring a writing tool (for a microphone).  Have one student in each pair raise their hand.  Inform them that they will be Dr. Boney.  Dr. Boney knows everything there is to know about bone structure.  Have the second partner raise their hand and tell them they are the local newscaster for your area.  They are to interview Dr. Boney for 1 minute about the structure of bones.  The newcaster asks questions using their trusty microphone pen.  After one minute, switch roles and give them another minute to interview their partner.


Assessment Types:
Demonstrations, Teacher-Made Test, Observations, Random Questioning

I check for learning throughout the lesson by asking evaluative questions during the lectures, labs, and activities.  The students are given a formative quiz at the conclusion of this lesson prior to moving on to the next segment, to check for learning.  I use a scantron machine because we have access to one and it makes grading fast and easy.  The quiz could easily be adapted to be used without a scantron as it is only 15 questions.  The questions from this quiz are used again on a Unit test.