Part of Unit: Basic Animal Genetics
Lesson Plan Overview / Details
This lesson will cover the principles of dominant and recessive traits, using Punnett Squares; specifically monohybrid crosses. Prior to this lesson students should already have covered curriculum in genotype and phenotype.
- Dominant & Recessive Traits
- 20 Minutes
- Punnett Squares
- 40 Minutes
California's 2008 CTE Standards
- ANR.C.C7.1 Differentiate between genotype and phenotype, and describe how dominant and rece...
- ANR.C.C7.3 Understand how to display phenotype and genotype ratios (e.g., by using a Punnet...
- ANR.FS.11.0 Demonstration and Application
- ANR.FS.5.1 Apply appropriate problem-solving strategies and critical thinking skills to wor...
- ANR.FS.5.3 Use critical thinking skills to make informed decisions and solve problems.
California Academic Content Standards (Reinforced)
- ELA.9-10.R.CAGT.2.3 Generate relevant questions about readings on issues that can be researched.2
Objectives and Goals
- Differentiate between dominant and recessive traits.
- Display how to correctly set up and fill out a Punnett Square and/or Monohybrid Cross.
- Understand how to determine phenotypic and genotypic ratios, using Punnett Squares.
- Emphasize how animal genetics is pertinent to production agriculture.
Activities in this Lesson
- "Who's your daddy?" Hooks / Set
Class will begin to the song, "Who's your daddy?" by Toby Keith. Greet your students at the door with an index card and tell them to quickly sit down, "So we can play who's your daddy!" Display the following PowerPoint and be sure that all students are seated quickly with an index card and pen in hand. Begin the PowerPoint once all students are seated. Tell them they will only have 15 seconds per slide and that they should pay close attention. *Hypothetically, students will tend to answer each of the questions with the most logical answer; matching offspring with a parent of the same phenotype. Once students have completed questions 1-5, have them trade index cards with a neighbor. (Remember: they should have used a pen to eliminate any answer changes.) After trading cards with a neighbor, explain that each corner of the room represents a letter answer. A's in one corner, B's in another, C's in another and D's in another corner. Review question number one and have each student stand in the corner of the answer listed on the index card they are grading. (If they have another student's card they will be more comfortable sharing the answers written... high school students don't generally like to go out on a limb and share their own answer, if their not sure it's correct.) It will be fun for you and the students to see the assumed answers of each, followed by the actual answers! Collect the cards to enforce the validity of the lesson and grade as a credit/no credit assignment. If they attempted the activity they will get credit, regardless of their actual score.
- Dominant vs. Recessive Traits Lecture
After the "Who's your daddy?" activity the students will be very curious why the offspring don't look like the parent they marked on their index card. This will lead you into a discussion about genetics and dominant and recessive traits. Use to following PowerPoint as an instructional tool to: 1) Review Genotype & Phenotype, 2) Explain Dominant & Recessive, 3) Model Punnett Squares.
Resources and Materials
- Dominant vs. Recessive, Punnett Sq.'s [ Download ] PowerPoint presentation to be used with Introduction to Punnett Squares Handout
- Introduction to Punnett Squares Demo / Modeling
Have students follow along with this handout as you model the use of Punnett Squares on the PowerPoint. Demonstrate and model in a way that allows student participation. For example, "Ashley, is this a homozygous x homozygous or homozygous x heterozygous cross?" Complete number's 1-3 with students.
Resources and Materials
- Intro to Punnett Sq.'s and Notes [ Download ] User friendly review notes, intro. notes and introduction to Punnett Squares.
- Punnett Square Challenge Assessment
Page 3, #4-6, of Introduction to Punnett Squares Handout (above) is an opportunity to assess the students retention of genetic crosses via a Punnett Square Challenge! Have students first attempt page three on their own. Then allow them to share with a partner. While they are sharing, prepare the three problem sets on the board. (Or if you are really time efficient, do it before class!) Call up partners to complete a Punnett Square in front of the class, on the board. Explain that results can be expressed as ratios, fractions, decimals or percents.
- Brainstorming Session Closure
In the last five minutes of class have the students brainstorm ideas of why they think this information might be important in the agriculture industry. List ideas on the board and discuss. For example: Cattle with out horns are more convenient for producers to raise. You can fit more cattle side by side at a feeder and worry less about carcass damage from fighting. This could also segue into other units, such as Effects of Technology on Agriculture, specifically Artificial Insemination and EPD's.
- Assessment Types:
- , Practice Problems,
Collect HW the following day. It is to be graded and used as an assessment tool. By grading the HW you will quickly learn what PS problems to revisit up on the board as a class. Choose a variety of these PS problems to use as a quiz to finish the unit, or use the pre-made quiz attached.