Part of Unit: Infection Control and Universal Precautions
Lesson Plan Overview / Details
In this lesson students will understand the concept of standard precautions and the multiple methods healthcare providers use to prevent the spread of infections.
- class time
- 90 Minutes
California Career and Technical Education Standards
- HSMT.FS.11.0 Demonstration and Application
- HSMT.FS.5.1 Apply appropriate problem-solving strategies and critical thinking skills to wor...
- HSMT.FS.6.2 Understand critical elements for health and safety practices related to storing,...
- HSMT.FS.6.3 Understand the importance and use of Standard Precautions and Infection Control,...
California Academic Content Standards (Reinforced)
Objectives and goals
- Define terms - asepsis, sterile, disinfection, standard precautions.
- Identify body secretions for which standard precautions must be used.
- Explain and demonstrate the use of personal protective equipment.
- Discuss when personal protective equipment would be used.
- List other safety measures used to prevent the spread of infection.
- Identify the different types of transmission-based precautions
Activities in this Lesson
Beginning of the lesson, the teacher is wearing a surgical mask, gown, goggles and gloves. Ask the students, "When you go to get your teeth cleaned, why does your dental hygienist or dentist need to wear all this?"
Today you will learn how this protects the healthcare provider and patient from infection, when you need to wear it and how to put it on and remove all this equipment properly.
- Terms - direct instruction - Lecture
asepsis - absence of disease producing microorganisms
sterile - absence of all microorganisms
disinfection - removal of infectious material from an item
standard precautions - personal safety measures used to protect the patient and healthcare provider from infection (also called universal precautions)
personal protective equipment-materials used to protect an employee from injury or illness resulting from contact made in the workplace.
nosocomial infections-any disease contracted by a patient while under medical care.
Pass out handout on "Standard Precautions" and instruct the students to keep the worksheet out on desk. Tell students that there will be discussion of each section on the handout.
- Standard Precautions Handout.pdf [ Download ]
Why use standard precautions?
Infection can occur when there is a growth or spread of pathogens.
Pathogens are too small to see with the naked eye and are always present.
Pathogens can enter the body through a break in the skin or through the mucous membranes.
Pathogens can easily spread from one person to another or from inanimate objects to person.
Patients who have compromised health are more susecptiable to infection.
Standard precautions protect the patient and the healthcare provider.
Standard precautions - include the following procedures:
wearing masks, goggles or face shields
wearing shoe covers
Proper disposal of personal protective equipment.
HANDWASHING is the most important procedure in preventing spread of infection.
- When are standard precautions used - Lecture
When touching carriers of infection, such as mucous membranes, or bodily fluids and substances like:
When there are cuts, breaks, or openings in the skin- the patient's or health care providers.
When there is possible contact with:
Ask students: What patient procedures can you think of that a healthcare provider would likely come in contact with bodily fluids? List on board as students answer.
- Gloving - Demo / Modeling
Demonstrate how to don nonsterile gloves .
-wash hands first
-pick glove up by the cuff and place it on the other hand
-repeat with a glove for the other hand
-interlace fingers to adjust the gloves on your hands
Display "How to remove contaminated gloves" on an overhead transparency.
Review key points of gloving:
-wash hands before and after gloving
-when to change gloves
-prevention of contamination
Demonstrate putting on and removing gloves.
Pass out gloves to students
Have students practice putting on and removing gloves as instructor demonstrates procedure
- how to remove gloves.pdf [ Download ]
- Put on/Remove Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) - Demo / Modeling
Demonstrate to students the proper way to put on and remove gown, mask and gloves.
Refer to poster "Donning and Removing PPE" while performing procedure.
Emphasize the following:
When putting on PPE-
gloves are always put on last
gown must completely cover back of uniform and be tied in the back
mask needs to fit snug over the nose, and be pulled down over the chin
cuff of gown needs to be inside the gloves
When taking off PPE-
gloves always come off first
only touch the earloops or ties on the mask
only touch the cuff of the gown that was covered by the gloves or inside of gown with your bare hands
wash hands after removing PPE
Allow time for questions and discussions
- ppeposter1322.pdf [ Download ]
- Put on/Remove Personal Protective Equipment - Lab / Shop
Place students into groups of no more than six.
Pass out PPE to each student in the group.
Work with one group at a time putting on and removing PPE.
Correct students as needed.
- Transmission-Based Precautions - Lecture
PPE may also be used if patient has specific contagious diseases.
Type of PPE to wear depends on how disease is transmitted.
Pass out handout: Transmission-Based Precautions
Instruct students on the three types of transmission-based precautions using the handout as a guide:
- Transmission Based Precautions.pdf [ Download ]
- sharps containers - Lecture
Instruct on the following:
biohazard waste - disposable items that are contaminated with blood or bodily fluids
sharps container - puncture resistant container used to dipose of sharps objects that may be contaminated with blood or bodily fluids
Needles are diposed of in this container.
Show sharps container and demonstrate how to dispose of needles. Explain the importance of not recapping used needles.
Pass sharps container around room, point out to students the biohazard symbol on the front of the container.
- Assessment Types:
- Demonstrations, Observations, review questions
Beginning of class the next day have the following patient procedures written on the board:
- taking a rectal temperature
- obtaining a blood pressure on a patient
- controlling bleeding with squirting blood
- serving a meal tray
- helping the dentist with a procedure where there is splashing of bodily fluids
- changing a dressing on a wound that is not bleeding or infected
- giving a back rub to a patient who has intact skin
- caring for a patient who has a highly contagious respiratory disease
Have students write down in their notebook which PPE would be needed if any.
Call on students to answer the above questions. After students identify correctly which PPE is needed, call on another student to demonstrate how to put on and remove that PPE.
- gloves, gown, goggles, mask
- gloves, gown, goggles,mask