Part of Unit: Biotechnology Components and Fields
Lesson Plan Overview / Details
This activity will be used in a Biotechnology skills-based class. Students enrolled in the class have already successfully completed Biology. Therefore, the students range between sophomores, juniors, and seniors.This technology is evolving from the original sequencing of the human genome and teaches the concepts of DNA Sequencing.
- Three classes
- 50 Minutes
California Career and Technical Education Standards
- HSMT.A.A3.1 Understand recombinant DNA, genetic engineering, monoclonal antibody production,...
- HSMT.A.A3.2 Understand how the fields of nanotechnology, bioinformatics, genomics, proteomic...
- HSMT.FS.4.1 Understand past, present, and future technological advances as they relate to a ...
- HSMT.FS.4.2 Understand the use of technological resources to access, manipulate, and produce...
California Academic Content Standards (Reinforced)
- ELA.9-10.R.CAGT.2.5 Extend ideas presented in primary or secondary sources through original analysis...3
- ELA.9-10.R.CAGT.2.6 Demonstrate use of sophisticated learning tools by following technical direction...2
Objectives and Goals
- Students will make a model of DNA demonstrating knowledge and understanding of how the three components (phosphate group, pentose sugar, and nitrogenous base) combine to complete the structure.
- The DNA model will be used to simulate DNA sequencing.
- Students will analyze sequencing graphs to determine DNA sequence.
Activities in this Lesson
- Anticipatory Set - Hooks / Set
As students enter the class, they read and follow instructions from the message board. Students are to sit and pull out their legal scientific notebooks with a black pen.
Have students turn to the next blank page and title it "Understanding Sequencing." Ask students to take down thoughts and questions while watching the clip. Play the first clip titled OJ Simpson Chase. Students should wonder why he is being chased, what he did, and some may be able to link OJ Simpson murder trial to the video clip.
Next, play the second video clip titled OJ Simpson Gloves. Again ask students to take down thoughts and questions. At the conclusion of the clip have a class discussion and see how much the students can answer one another's questions.
Inform students about the details of OJ Simpson and let them know he was acquitted. One of the key pieces of his trial was the fact that DNA evidence was thrown out due to contamination during the collection of evidence.
Brief synopsis of the OJ Simpson murder trial: In 1995, OJ Simpson (ex-NFL football star) was tried for the murders of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman. Prior to arrest, OJ Simpson has an infamous "Bronco ride" that 95 million television viewers witnessed. The "Bronco ride" caught on television showed the slow police chase of OJ live.
For the trial, the prosecution used restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) tests stating that OJ Simpson's blood matched that at the murder scene. RFLP tests also showed that Nicole Brown Simpson's blood matched that found on OJ Simpson's socks. The defense developed a theory that either blood samples were contaminated or they were planted by corrupt police officers. On October 3rd, OJ received a "not guilty" jury verdict. For a more thorough description and explanation of the trial, got to http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/Simpson/Simpsonaccount.htm.
- Lecture/Computer Simulations - Lecture
The sequencing PowerPoint can be used a couple of slides a day for 10-15 minutes or all eight slides can be used at once. Slides 5-7 have computer simulations. Simply click on the picture and it will open a new page on your internet browser, taking your class directly to the simulation. Teachers may run the PowerPoint with an LCD/ SmartBoard and have students do the simulations (slides 5-7) on personal computers if available. The simulations may also be run as a class with an LCD/ SmartBoard. After concluding the lecture (slides 1-7), have students make four copy down four large squares (as shown on slide 8) and fill it out. Teacher circulates and aids students filling out as needed. The lecture portion should take 10-15 minutes over two periods or 20-30 minutes over one class period.
- Sequencing Lecture [ Download ]
- Modeling the Activity - Demo / Modeling
The kinesthetic portion will likewise take take two periods. One period will be devoted to color, cut and form the model. The second period will be used to run the simulation and answer the reflection questions. Anticipate two full 50-minute periods will be needed that combine the lecture and kinesthetic activity. A portion of a third period might be needed to go over reflection questions as a class depending on the level of students enrolled in the class.
- Student Models - Lab / Shop
Provide each student with a copy of pages 1-3 of the student handout, scissors, white paper, a glue stick and colored pencils, pens or crayons (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, and black.). Only use glue sticks as rubber cement and elmer's glue gets messy and bleeds through, ruining the model.
The following is instructions for making the model and kinesthetic activity simulating DNA sequencing :
• Remember to make multiple copies of page 2 – the template for making the DNA model.
• Group students up in teams or 5-8 students. Assign each student in the group a number.
• Have the students follow the gel picture from page 3 when constructing their DNA model.
• Walk around and make sure students are building varying sized strands. You will have to provide an additional white piece of paper for students to build the DNA model on.
• Have them arrange the strands in smallest to largest.
• Have the student with the smallest strand run through a “lane” in your classroom.
• What ever base they ended with, have them shout it out at the end of the lane.
• The next student with the next smallest strand runs through the lane in the classroom, shouting out the base they ended with, etc. until all students have run through the lane.
i. Extension: You can emphasize that these ddNTPs have a fluorescent tag on them and will therefore give off that color. The computer reads this and gives a print out similar to the picture on page 3 which can then be analyzed.
• Have students record the actual bases of the DNA strand they just sequenced.
• Make sure to point out that each group made the same DNA strand, similarly to what would happen in lab (i.e. each group would have a “student 1” with the exact same strand and ending base). There would be many copies of each size of DNA strand, not just one.
- Understanding Sequencing Student [ Download ]
- Assessment Types:
- Writing Samples, Observations,
Have students draw a representation of the simulation in their notebooks on the next blank page.
Then have students fill out the discussion questions on page three of the Understanding Sequencing Student Handout.
The Understanding Sequencing Teacher handout has basic and expected answers to these concluding questions.
Teachers may choose to grade based on completeness or page three and the diagram of the kinesthetic activity or they can be more precise and follow the rubric.