Part of Unit: Laboratory Procedures (Obtaining & Preparing Specimens)
Lesson Plan Overview / Details
Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to perform and demonstrate skin puncture procedures to obtain capillary blood specimens for blood glucose screening using a lancet, reagent test strips and a glucometer while observing all universal precautions.
- One Class Period
- 55 Minutes
Health Science & Medical Technology
California Career and Technical Education Standards
- HSMT.B.B2.4 Use appropriate documentation to report information about patients and clients.
- HSMT.B.B3.3 Know how to evaluate equipment for possible hazards.
- HSMT.B.B3.6 Use proper body mechanics, ergonomics, safety equipment, and techniques to preve...
California Academic Content Standards (Reinforced)
- ELA.9-10.R.CAGT.2.5 Extend ideas presented in primary or secondary sources through original analysis...3
- ELA.9-10.R.CAGT.2.6 Demonstrate use of sophisticated learning tools by following technical direction...2
Objectives & Goals
- Explain the purpose of wearing gloves and following universal precautions (PPD/PPE)
- Explain reasons for performing capillary lood tests
- Demonstrate skin puncture procedures with a lancet
- Demonstrate specimen capture and testing with regeant test strips and glucometer
- Demonstrate proper usage of teminology from this lesson
- Demonstrate correct usage of the sugar level chart
Activities in this Lesson
- Capa what? Hooks / Set
Who would like to intentionally cause themself pain today? I didn't think so (no one raises their hand) Can anyone tell me what a capillary blood test is? Have you ever got a paper cut or poked your finger on something sharp, then you probably broke one of your capillary blood vessels.
Even though it can be such a small cut or puncture because of the sensitivity of the nerve endings in the same area it really hurts. Now imagine that you have to intentionally poke your finger tip with a small blade 3 or 4 times per day.
Please be advised that this is an invasive procedure and parental consent needs to be obtained for all students under the age of 18 prior to the demonstration of the skill. The consent must state that the students will be performing multiple finger sticks on themselves as well as other students.
Resources and Materials
- Lancets [ View Image ] [ Download Original ] Non-safety type of lancet
- Lancet auto-pen [ View Image ] [ Download Original ] Variety of lancet auto-pens
- Safety lancets [ View Image ] [ Download Original ] Safety type lancets
- Capillary Puncture Permission Form.doc [ Download ] This permission slip must be signed by a parent/guardian prior to this activity
- capillary puncture with glove.jpg [ View Image ] [ Download Original ] What a successfull puncture will look like
- Step by Step... Demo / Modeling
Read along on your check off sheet as a demonstration of the skill is modeled.
Check Off Sheet:
1. Wash Hands
2. Gather all needed supplies: Gloves, Alcohol wipe, Lancet, Clean gauze/cotton, regeant test strip, glucometer, band aid and sharps container
3. Inspect the site and determine the proper location. The distal lateral portion of the second or third finger is preferred. Students should choose thier nondominant hand.
4. Place glove on non-dominant hand
5. Clean the site with alcohol wipe or alcohol cotton ball
6. With your gloved hand, turn on the testing unit and insert the regeant test strip into the glucometer with the correct side up and the metal strips going into the unit. Be sure to check the expiration date of the test strips.
8. Prepare the lancet
9. Hold finger firmly
10. Puncture the correct location on the finger
11. Blot the first drop of blood onto clean cotton or gauze
12. Apply pressure above puncture site (milk the arm as needed)
13. Drop the needed amount of specimen onto the window of the test strip
14.Apply cotton and direct pressure onto the puncture site while waiting for the reading. If bleeding does not stop you can use a bandaid.
15. Remove glove
16. Chart reading – remember the time of day and last oral intake
17. Replace equipment and clean up. Use the sharps container for all used lancets
18. Wash hands.
- Checking for Understanding Lecture
It is important to emphasize to the students that the way to minimize the pain is “hesitation hurts.” It is important to share that they need need to keep thier movement fluid during the puncture process. No one wants to hurt themselves on purpose. Ask students if they have questions.
It is important the students follow all steps and get an adequate amount of blood needed for the test to be accurate. Failure to either follow the steps, disregard any of the previously learned safety and universal precautions or not obtain the adequate amount of blood for the test will not successfully pass this skill. This is a pass or fail skill.
Students are allowed to do this skill in small groups of 2 and the teacher will monitor the process.
Discuss that it is importantto get all the needed materials and supplies and bring them over to your desks. It is also important to check the expiration date of the strips to ensure they are not expired. (Insert picture of where the date is located on the container)
Ask students to turn thier desks face to face so that they are facing each other. Usually, the lancets are handed out 2 at a time to ensure that students can be monitored and safety maintained, which includes the proper disposal of the lancet.
- Guided Practice Demo / Modeling
Students will begin in groups of 2 demonstrating the skill using the step by step check off list. (Can insert another copy of check off at this point)
Monitor the group of 2 and upon completion continue on to the next group and so on until everyone in the class has had the opportunity to perform the skill.
Remind the students of the requirements for a successful capillary blood glucose screening and the most common mistakes.
Common mistakes may include:
*not pressing the lancet down firmly on the finger while puncturing
*raising the hand/arm above the heart while trying to obtain the sample which in turn slows the blood flow down
*not inserting reagent rest strip all the way into the test unit
*forgetting to turn the unit on or taking to long so that the unit may automatically shut off
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- Assessment Types: