Part of Unit: Engine Performance
Lesson Plan Overview / Details
Students will understand the purpose and the years of introduction of the evaporative controls, positive crankcase ventilation, exhaust gas recirculation and catalytic converter.
Intro to Emission Controls Devices
- one block
- 90 Minutes
California Career and Technical Education Standards
- T.C.C1.1 Know and understand common environmental conservation practices and their applic...
- T.C.C1.2 Practice the safe handling and storage of chemicals and hazardous wastes in acco...
- T.C.C1.3 Understand the way in which waste gasses, emissions, and other environmentally d...
- T.C.C1.4 Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of existing, new, and emerging systems...
- T.C.C2.1 Understand and use appropriate tools and equipment, such as wrenches, sockets, a...
- T.C.C3.1 Understand the operating principles of internal and external combustion engines.
California Academic Content Standards (Reinforced)
Objectives and Goals
Students will understand the operation, purpose and the years of introduction of the evaporative controls, positive crankcase ventilation, detination (knock) sensor, exhaust gas recirculation and catalytic converter to vehicles sold in the state of California.
Activities in this Lesson
- What is that smell? - Hooks / Set
Show a car running that smokes a lot out the tail pipe, either blue or black smoke.
- Development of Emission Control Devices - Lecture
While lecturing, students will follow along in the text book ( Thomson Delmar Learning, "Automotive Technology: A Systems Approach," 4th edition), pages 786-804.
Start by explaining that in late 1959, California established the first standards for automotive emissions, and in 1967, the Federal Clean Air Act was amended to provide for federal standards that would apply to motor vehicles.
Positive Crankcase Ventilation System (PCV)
The first source of emissions to be brought under control was the blowby in the crankcase, witch was called the Positive Crankcase Ventilation System and designed to route crankcase vapors (blowby) hydrocarbons (HC) and some carbon monoxide (CO) back to the engine's intake manifold. This system was developed and incorporated into the 1961 cars and light trucks sold in California. These systems were installed on all cars nationwide, beginning with the 1963 models. (Show how the system works, locations and parts involved, PCV valve and hoses; refer to fig. 31-9, Page 793.)
Air Injection Reactor (AIR)
The control of unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions in the engines exhaust was the next major development. An air injection reactor (AIR) system was built into cars and light trucks sold in California in 1966. (Show how the basic system worked and parts involved, air pump, air manifolds, check valves, air diverter valve and the air bypass valve; see fig. 31-29, page 802.) Other systems, including the controlled combustion system (ignition spark control), were developed and used nationwide in 1968. Further progress in the following years improved combustion to reduce hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions.
Evaporation Control System (EVAP)
Fuel vapors from the gasoline tank and the carburator float bowl were brought under control with the introduction of Evaporation Control System (evap) . These systems were first installed in 1970 model cars sold in California and in most cars made domestically, beginning with 1971 models. This system reduced fuel vapors ( hydrocarbons) (HC), to escape into the atmosphere. (Show how the basic system worked and parts involved, a specially designed fuel tank, carbon cannister, vapor tubing and hoses and fuel vapor separator; see fig. 31-3, page 789.)
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
Most vehicle manufacturers started to provide emission conrtol systems that reduced oxides of nitrogen (nox) (produced from the high heat in the combustion chamber) as early as 1970. The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (egr) used on some 1972 models was used extensively for 1973 models when the federal standards for oxides of nitrogen (nox) took effect. (Show how the basic systems evolved, worked and parts involved, EGR valve, thermal vacuum control valve and transducer; see fig. 31-19, page 796.)
Catalytic Converter (CAT)
One of the most important developments for lowering emission levels has been the availability and use of unleaded gasoline. Since 1971, engines have been designed to operate on unleaded fuels. This had several benefits: no lead particles and deposits in the exhaust, increase in spark plug life, and the most important, introduction of the catalytic Converter (CAT), beginning with the 1975 model year. Converters dramatically reducing emissions by provided a means of oxidizing the Carbon monoxid (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC). (See figs. 31-26 and 31-27, pages 800 and 801.)
Close the lecture by saying that the most concern to enviromentalists, engineers, and technicians are HC, CO, and NOx. CO2 and O2 are not pollutants, but are monitored because they are indicators of combustion efficiency.
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- Clean Up - Closure
Have students pick up and sweep up if needed, wipe down vehicles worked on, put away any tools used and put away books.
- Assessment Types:
- Writing Samples, Teacher-Made Test,
Development of Emissions Controls Devices Test
1. What emission does the Positive Crankcase Ventilation System (PCV) reduce?
2. What year was the PCV system implemented?
3. In what year was the Federal Clean Air Act amended?
4. What emission control device was introduced in some 1970 California cars and all in 1971, to reduce hydrocarbons (HC)?
5. What emission control device was introduced in some 1966 California cars and all 1968 nation-wide to reduce hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) in the exhaust?
6. What emission control device was used to reduce the high temperature in the combustion chamber?
7. What emission control device dramatically reducing emissions by provided a means of oxidizing the carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) ?
8. What year was the Catalytic Converter available in cars?
9. The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) reduced what emissiom from the exhaust?
10. The most important development for lowering emission levels was ____.
NOTE: If need be, change the format of the test to fit you class
Materials and References
Textbook ( Thomson Delmar Learning, "Automotive Technology: A Systems Approach," 4th edition ), pages 786-804.
Parts list for demonstration:
- PCV Valve
- Air pump, air manifolds, check valves, air diverter valve and the air bypass valve
- Fuel tank, carbon canister, vapor tubing and hoses and fuel vapor separator
- EGR valve, thermal vacuum control valve and transducer.
- A cutaway Catalytic Converter.