Introduction to Criminal Justice - CTE Online Model

by CTE Online Admin

Students learn the principles of the criminal justice field, the many criminal justice agencies, and federal, state and local laws.

The course of study includes: historical perspective of American police agencies, with an emphasis on California law enforcement; philosophy of the origins of crime and the social impact on society; development of the criminal justice system, current trends and their relevance to local and state law enforcement; hiring and testing processes for positions in law enforcement; laws of arrest, search and seizure laws; court process; penal and vehicle codes - what constitutes a crime; child abuse and related offenses; drug and alcohol abuse and related offenses.

From CALPADS: Introduction to Public Safety (Introduction)

This course introduces theories, principals, and techniques used in occupations that fall under the heading of Public Safety including police, corrections, and homeland security. Policies, procedures, and skills needed in services that provide for the safety and security of people and property and prevention of theft and damage are included.

Program Information
CTE Certification Elements
Standards
California's 2013 CTE Standards (9)
California English Common Core Standards (2)
California's 2008 CTE Standards (5)
California Academic Content Standards (7)
Competencies / Outcomes
  • Students will have a thorough understanding of the criminal justice system.
  • Students will research the legislation of crime, the causes of crime, and how crime is reported.
  • Students will summarize local, state, and federal levels of law enforcement.
  • Students will apply what they have learned in class when researching the major issues in criminal justice today.
  • Students will compare and contrast the civil and criminal justice systems, civil and criminal law, and their foundations.
  • Students will research the Constitution and other sources of law.
  • Students will research, compare and contrast the various criminal justice agencies, local, state, and federal.
  • Students will research the various era's of policing. This includes the political era, the reform, and the community era.
  • The course offers students the ability to thoroughly research and summarize an officers use of force, non - lethal and non lethal.
Units

Introduction / History of Law and Law Enforcement

This unit explores how law and its enforcement has developed over the centuries. Although technology has changed during this time, the basic conflicts between people have not. The student will examine these conflicts, the laws that attempted to resolve them, and the different approaches to the enforcement of those laws. This will serve as a foundation and a resource for students to understand today's laws and today's law enforcement methods.

Competencies / Outcomes

  • Students will research the Constitution and other sources of law.
  • Students will research the various eras of policing. This includes the political era, the reform, and the community era.

Lessons to add:

  • History of Law – What Laws and Law Enforcement Methods Have Already Been Tried: from King Urukagina of Lagash to the Community Policing Era

Classroom 4 hours

The Criminal Justice System

Unit Overview:

This unit provides students with an overview of the Criminal Justice System and its major components such as police, courts and corrections. The unit will explain the structure of each component and how it works with the other components to form the Criminal Justice System.

Competencies / Outcomes

  • Students will have a thorough understanding of the criminal justice system.
  • Students will compare and contrast the civil and criminal justice systems, civil and criminal law, and their foundations.

Lessons to add:

  • Administration of Justice Components of the Executive, legislative and judicial branches of government
  • Goals of the Criminal Justice System
  • The Administration of Justice Process from initial detention, to corrections and release back into society.
  • The Judicial System
  • Juvenile Court System
  • Corrections, Parole and Probation
  • Vocabulary
Classroom
20 Hours

Police Functions and Roles

Unit Overview:

This unit will provide the student with an overview of law enforcement agencies in the United States and Interpol. The unit will explain the purpose of each type of agency as well as how the agencies work together to meet the law enforcement needs of society. For example, the similarities and differences between a sheriff's office and a municipal police department will be examined.

Competencies / Outcomes

  • Students will summarize local, state, and federal levels of law enforcement.
  • Students will research, compare and contrast the various criminal justice agencies, local, state and federal.

Lessons to Add:

  • Law Enforcement Agencies: Missions, Purposes, Functions and Roles – Federal, State, County, Municipal and Special Jurisdiction
  • Law Enforcement Agencies in the Armed Forces
  • Interpol
  • Other Law Enforcement Agencies such as Department of Motor Vehicle and Fish and Game, etc.

Classroom: 6 Hours

Patrol Procedures / Directed Policing

Unit Overview:

This unit will cover the basic techniques that an officer uses to patrol. The unit will cover preparing for a patrol shift, communications, how the knowledge of the community's service needs and crime patterns directs an officer's patrol as well as how vehicle, foot, and traffic patrol is performed.

Competencies / Outcomes

  • Students will explain how an officer prepares for a daily patrol including crime pattern information and equipment needed.
  • Students will demonstrate knowledge of the radio code, its syntax and etiquette.
  • Students will explain how a vehicle is selected, used and maintained for regular and traffic patrol.

Lessons to add:

  • Basic Patrol Concepts
  • Directed Enforcement Patrol
  • Preparing for a Patrol Shift
  • Radio Communications
  • Vehicle Patrol
  • Foot Patrol
  • Traffic Stops
  • Pedestrian Stops

Classroom: 40 hours

Law of Arrest

Unit Overview:

This unit will cover the laws of arrest as delineated under California Penal Code Sections 834, 835 and 835A. The unit opens with a discussion of consensual encounters, continues with making lawful detentions and then moves into arrests both with and without a warrant.

Competencies / Outcomes

  • Students will explain why consensual encounters do not require a demonstration of probable cause.
  • Students will list the elements necessary to make a lawful detention.
  • Students will explain the difference between a lawful arrest and a detention.

Lessons to add:

  • Consensual Encounters
  • Detentions
  • Arrests with a Warrant
  • Arrests without a Warrant (836(a)(1) Penal Code
  • Private Persons Arrest (Erroneously referred to as Citizens Arrest)
  • Releasing an Arrestee Without Charges – 849(b) of the Penal Code

Classroom: 8 Hours

Civil Rights

Unit Overview:

In this key unit the concept of civil rights is explored with attention given to the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 8th and 14th Amendments. In addition, the Right to Privacy is explained as having been created through a combination of several amendments. Finally, the prohibition against Racial Profiling is also explained.

Competencies / Outcomes

  • Students will demonstrate knowledge of which rights are delineated in which amendments.
  • Students will explain how each right has been viewed by the United States Supreme Court.
  • Students will analyze scenarios and correctly apply their knowledge of civil rights to the solution of each scenario.

Lessons to add:

  • 1st Amendment
  • 2nd Amendment
  • 4th Amendment
  • 5th Amendment
  • 6th Amendment
  • 8th Amendment
  • 14th Amendment
  • Right to Privacy Created by Supreme Court (by combining several amendments.)
  • Prohibition of Racial Profiling

Classroom: 18 Hours

Ethics

Unit Overview:

This unit will introduce the student to the provisions of the Law Enforcement Code of Ethics its purpose and application. The unit will cover the principles of public service ethics including: public interest, independent objective judgment, public accountability, democratic leadership, responsibility and fitness for office. The unit will conclude with an outline of a process for making ethical decisions. The process includes:

  • Stop and think
  • Clarify goals
  • Determine facts
  • Develop options
  • Consider consequences
  • Choosing a course of action
  • Monitoring the effects and modifying the course of action.

Competencies / Outcomes

  • Students will know the Five Principles of Public Service Ethics.
  • Students will know the Law Enforcement Code of Ethics and be able to explain its provisions.
  • Students will define each key term found in the Law Enforcement Code of Ethics.
  • Students will know the steps that should be taken in arriving at an Ethical Decision.

Lessons to add:

  • Law Enforcement Code of Ethics
  • Making an Ethical Decision-The Quality of a Decision: From Acceptable to Exemplary.
  • The Five Principles of Public Service Ethics

Classroom: 6 Hours

Fundamentals of Criminal Law

Unit Overview:

Whether an officer is making an arrest, investigating a crime or resolving a conflict, she or he, must understand the general foundations of criminal law as well as the elements of specific statutes. The student will, therefore, learn the difference between statutory criminal law and common law, the impact of court case decisions on the law and the elements of laws that are commonly encountered in an officer's day to day activities.

Competencies / Outcomes

  • Students will know the difference between common law and statutory law.
  • Students will understand that, although much of our criminal law has its roots in common law, the only laws recognized in California are those statutes that have been written down in statute form and passed by a legislative body.
  • Students will explain the concept of case law, how it is formed by court decisions, and how it impacts the enforcement of Criminal Law.
  • Students will know the elements of specific statutes including, but not limited to, murder, assault with a deadly weapon, burglary, arson and robbery.

Lessons to add:

  • Fundamentals of Statutory Criminal Law
  • Impact of Court Case Decisions on Criminal Law
  • General Criminal Statutes
  • Overview of Crimes Against People
  • Overview of Crimes Against Property

Classroom: 15 Hours

Fundamentals of Search and Seizure

Unit Overview:

The fair enforcement of criminal law requires that allegations be proven or disproven through valid evidence that has been discovered and collected in accordance with the restrictions on government specified in the Bill of Rights. This unit will explain to students what constitutes search and seizure, what protections are afforded by the 4th Amendment, how the reasonable expectation of privacy impacts the collection of evidence, what constitutes probable cause to search, how a search warrant is obtained and served and the effects of the Exclusionary Rule.

Competencies / Outcomes

  • Students will know the different types of evidence as well as the purpose and limits of each type.
  • Students will explain what actions constitute a search and / or a seizure.
  • Students will understand and apply the 4th amendment protections to solving search and seizure scenarios.
  • Students will write a search warrant including an affidavit in support of the warrant.
  • Students will be able to list exceptions to the search warrant requirement and be able to explain the conditions under which these exceptions may be applied.
  • Students will explain the concept of probable cause to search.
  • Students will explain the Exclusionary Rule.

Lessons to add:

  • What Constitutes Search and Seizure?
  • 4th Amendment Protections
  • Reasonable Expectation of Privacy
  • Probable Cause to Search
  • The Exclusionary Rule

Classroom: 15 Hours

Hiring and Training Process

Unit Overview:

This unit covers how police officer candidates are selected for hire including written testing, psychological testing, agility tests, interviews and background investigations. It then outlines the purpose and responsibilities of the California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training. Next it outlines the learning domains that are covered in a law enforcement basic academy and finishes with the field training portion of the training where the recruit learns to apply what she, or he, has learned. The hiring and training practices of other types of Administration of Justice agencies, such as probation, are explored.

Competencies / Outcomes

  • Students will know the different types of law enforcement agencies in California.
  • Students will understand what hiring requirements are and be able to list the common ones.
  • Students will complete a simulated practice written civil service test.
  • Students will complete a physical agility test.
  • To get used to assembling required information, students will complete a practice application for employment as well as a Personal History Questionnaire. (Sensitive information such as social security numbers will be simulated to avoid distribution of private information.)
  • Students will participate in an oral interview serving both as a candidate and a board member.
  • Students will compare and contrast high school lessons that they have received with how the material would be covered in an academy.

Lessons to add:

  • Law Enforcement Training – Academy/College/Other

Classroom: 15 Hours

Physical Fitness: Arrest and Handcuffing

Unit Overview:

This unit explains the necessity for an officer to stay in good physical condition and begins to prepare the student for passing the physical agility test. The lesson is brought home by having the student learn and practice the physical techniques used in making an arrest and applying handcuffs.

Competencies / Outcomes

  • Students will know the physical fitness requirements of agencies in their county.
  • Students will take a physical agility test based on those given by local agencies.
  • Students will understand the mechanisms of handcuffs.
  • Students will demonstrate the proper application of handcuffs.
  • Students will demonstrate control holds which may be required in an arrest situation.

Lessons to add:

  • How to Physically Make an Arrest –Methods, Tactics, Tools and Physical Conditioning

Classroom: 15 Hours

Report Writing

Unit Overview:

This unit explains the purposes and uses of a police report. It provides the students with common legal terms, their definitions and uses. It covers basic grammar and how it is used to write clear, concise, yet complete police reports. It also provides an overview of other types of documentation used in the Criminal Justice System.

Competencies / Outcomes

  • Students will know the purposes of a police report and who the readers are likely to be.
  • Students will know the definitions of common legal terms and how these terms are used.
  • Students will know the basic rules of grammar and be able to apply them in their reports.
  • Students will write clear, concise and complete police reports of simulated crimes.

Lessons to add:

  • Introduction to Report Writing – Purpose of Reports and Different Approaches by Different Types of Justice Agencies
  • Techniques of Report Writing Including Format and Grammar

Classroom: 15 Hours

Substitute Lesson Plans

Super-empowering Your Substitute:

This is a series of lesson plans that are designed for teachers to use when they require a substitute. The activities will be easily modified to meet needs in either forensic science or law enforcement; however, the thinking behind the activities will allow any teacher to adapt them to their discipline.

Lesson 1: Developing a Personal Glossary
Lesson 2: Spelling Dictionary
Lesson 3: Common Legal Terms
Lesson 4: Rules of the Road